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Taideyliopiston julkaisemisen opas: Source References

Mark your sources correctly!

Using scientific sources appropriately is the very foundation of academic research and scientific writing. Therefore, make sure you accurately quote and make references to your sources. Carefully prepared references and bibliography are the characteristics of a scientific text. In your text, you acknowledge the copyrights of others by clearly marking any sentences you’ve borrowed from other writers, and in the bibliography, by carefully listing the work those sentences come from. A reference always has two parts: a text reference and a source reference.

More info:
Reference practice guide of Aalto University Aalto University's guide
Source and reference guide of the University of  Jyväskylä  

APA style

The most common style of referencing in academic writing is the technique published by the American Psychological Association: APA. It was originally used in psychology and social research. Nowadays it is also by many other sciences, including art research.

In APA, references are made to the source in a shortened form inside the text (writer, year) and in complete form in the bibliography at the end of the text.

Example of APA-style reference to a book:
APA: Inside the text

The book uses success stories from the authors’ own lived experiences to make the case for a creative revolution in the business world (Stewart & Simmons, 2010).
 

APA: In the bibliography

Stewart, D. & Simmons, M. (2010). The Business Playground: Where Creativity and Commerce Collide. Berkeley, USA: New Riders Press.
 

See:

The source reference guide of the University of Jyväskylä

 

Source:
https://www.scribbr.fi/lahdeviittaukset/yleista-viittaustyyleista/
 

 

 

The Chicago style

The Chicago style is the creation of The Chicago Manual of Style. The style is mainly used in humanist sciences, and there are two variations:

Chicago A: You provide the complete reference in the footnote or endnote and in the bibliography.
Chicago B:  You provide a shorter reference inside the text using the writer-year technique, and a full reference in the bibliography.
 

Examples of the Chicago A style when referencing a book:
Chicago A: Inside the text
The book uses success stories from the authors’ own lived experiences to make the case for a creative revolution in the business world.1

Chicago A: In the footnote or endnote
1 Dave Stewart and Mark Simmons, The Business Playground: Where Creativity and Commerce Collide (Berkeley: New Riders Press, 2010).

Chicago A: In the bibliography
Stewart, Dave and Mark Simmons. The Business Playground: Where Creativity and Commerce Collide. Berkeley: New Riders Press, 2010.

 

Examples of the Chicago B style when referencing a book:
Chicago B: Inside the text
The book uses success stories from the authors’ own lived experiences to make the case for a creative revolution in the business world (Stewart and Simmons 2010, 22).

Chicago B: In the bibliography
Stewart, Dave and Mark Simmons. 2010. The Business Playground: Where Creativity and Commerce Collide. Berkeley: New Riders Press.

 

Source: Scribbor: 
https://www.scribbr.fi/lahdeviittaukset/yleista-viittaustyyleista/

Additional information:
http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html